Elasticity is the ability of a substance to recover its original shape and size after distortion.
Forces Between Atoms
The intermolecular forces consist of an attractive force and a repulsive force.
- At the equilibrium distance, d, the attractive force equal to the repulsive force.
- If the 2 atoms are brought closer, the repulsive force will dominate, produces a net repulsive force between the atoms.
- If the 2 atoms are brought further, the attractive force will dominate, produces a net attractive force between the atoms.
Graph of Forces Between 2 atoms
x0 = Equilibrium Distance
When the particles are compressed, x < x0, the attractive force between the particles increases.
If the distance x exceeds the elastic limit, the attractive force will decrease.