Scientific Investigation

The scientific method is a systematic method in doing their work. A report of the investigation must include: Objective of the experiment, Inference, Hypothesis, Three types of variables: manipulated variable, responding variable and fixed variable, Defined operational variables, List of apparatus, Procedure, Tabulation of data, Analysis of data, Conclusion. Inference: The inference is a statement … Read more

Ammeter and Voltmeter

Ammeters are measuring instrument used to measure electric current. Voltmeters are measuring instrument used to measure potential difference (voltage). In SPM syllabus, you need to know how to take reading from ammeter and voltmeter how to identify the sensitivity of an ammeter and voltmeter. the connection of ammeter and voltmeter in a circuit. An ammeter … Read more

Vernier Caliper

Play Play Play Play Previous Next Vernier calliper is a measuring tool used to measure length. It is more accurate than the metre rule. It can measure the length with an accuracy up to 0.01cm. The figure above shows the illustration of a vernier calliper. For SPM students, you need to remember the name of … Read more

Ruler, Thermometer and Stopwatch Ruler A metre rule has sensitivity or accuracy accuracy of 1mm.Precaution to be taken when using ruler Make sure that the object is in contact with the ruler. Avoid parallax error. Avoid zero error and end error. Thermometer There are 2 types of mercury thermometer Thermometers of range -10oC – 110oC with accuracy 1oC. … Read more

Measurement and Error

Play Play Play Play Play Previous Next Error Error is the difference between the actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurement. There are 2 main types of errorĀ  Systematic ErrorĀ  Random Error Systematic Error Systematic errors are errors which tend to shift all measurements in a systematic way so their mean … Read more


Play Play Play Previous Next Prefixes are the preceding factor used to represent very small and very large physical quantities in SI units. Table below shows the prefixes that you need to know in SPM. Conversion of prefixes Prefixes to Normal Number Example 1:The frequency of the radio wave is 350M Hz. What is the … Read more

Scalar and Vector Quantities

Scalar Quantity Scalars are quantities which are fully described by a magnitude alone. Magnitude is the numerical value of a quantity. Examples of scalar quantities are distance, speed, mass, volume, temperature, density and energy. Vector Quantity Vectors are quantities which are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction. Examples of vector quantities are … Read more